Psychological Research Report #5 , American Psychiatric Association, 1956. Detention makes a number of tricks possible. Is there an emotional reaction strong enough to distort results? The manuals advise that torture techniques can backfire and that the threat of pain is often more effective than pain itself. Allowing the source to write letters, especially if he can be led to believe that they will be smuggled out without the knowledge of the authorities, may produce information which is difficult to extract by direct questioning. 32. Interrogators who adopt them and who note in an interrogatee one or two of the characteristics of "Type A" may mistakenly assign the source to Category A and assume the remaining traits. Click here for the lowest price! One general observation is introduced now, however, because it is considered basic to the establishment of rapport, upon which the success of non-coercive interrogation depends. These differences are more pronounced in persons from small families then in those who grew up in large families. If rapport is established and if the interrogatee has nothing significant to hide, detailed questioning presents only routine problems. Confrontation of two or more suspects with each other in order to produce recriminations or admissions is especially dangerous if not preceded by separate interrogation sessions which have evoked compliance from one of the interrogatees, or at least significant admissions involving both. The interrogator can and does make the subject's world not only unlike the world to which he had been accustomed but also strange in itself - a world in which familiar patterns of time, space, and sensory perception are overthrown. The interrogation process is a continuum, and everything that takes place in the continuum influences all subsequent events. In other words, as the sights and sounds of an outside world fade away, its significance for the interrogatee tends to do likewise. Obviously, many resistant subjects of counterintelligence interrogation cannot be brought to cooperation, or even to compliance, merely through pressures which they generate within themselves or through the unreinforced effect of the interrogation situation. The pressure "... will typically rise by a few millimeters of mercury in response to a question, whether it is answered truthfully or not. Does he belong to one of the nine major categories listed in pp. One of these is to place the interrogatee in an outer office and escort past him, and into the inner office, an accuser whom he knows personally or, in fact, any person -- even one who is friendly to the source and uncooperative with the interrogators -- who is believed to know something about whatever the interrogatee is concealing. 21. An interrogation is not merely a verbal performance; it is a vocal performance, and the voice projects tension, fear, a dislike of certain topics, and other useful pieces of information. Instructed Latins On Executions, Torture; Manuals Used 1982–91, Pentagon Reveals", "The 13 people who made torture possible", "Torture was taught by CIA; Declassified manual details the methods used in Honduras; Agency denials refuted", "CIA, Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual – 1983", "CIA, KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation, July 1963", "Kubark Counterintelligence Interrogation", "Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual – 1983", "KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation – July 1963", Fact Sheet Concerning Training Manuals Containing Materials Inconsistent With U.S. Policy, State Department page referring to KUBARK stations, When a wave of torture and murder staggered a small U.S. ally, truth was a casualty, Former envoy to Honduras says he did what he could, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=U.S._Army_and_CIA_interrogation_manuals&oldid=994648157#CIA_manuals, Publications of the United States government, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2008, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Guerra Revolucionaria e Ideología Comunista, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 20:19. In other words, Orne is probably right in holding that most recalcitrant subjects will continue effective resistance as long as the frame of reference is undisturbed. The results confirmed earlier findings that (1) the deprivation of sensory stimuli induces stress; (2) the stress becomes unbearable for most subjects; (3) the subject has a growing need for physical and social stimuli; and (4) some subjects progressively lose touch with reality, focus inwardly, and produce delusions, hallucinations, and other pathological effects. Manipulative techniques - still keyed to the individual but brought to bear upon him from outside himself - then become necessary. Moreover, his reactions to the world around him are more dependent upon events in that world and less the product of rigid, subjective patterns than is true of the other types discussed. Such items should be entered into the record, but it is normally preferable not to diverge from an impersonal topic in order to follow a biographic lead. Because pulling information from a recalcitrant subject is the hard way of doing business, interrogation should not begin until all pertinent facts available from overt and from cooperative sources have been assembled. The techniques used in nullifying resistance, inducing compliance, and eventually eliciting voluntary cooperation are discussed in Part VIII of this handbook. Yet such persons may possess counterintelligence (or other) information quite equal in value to that held by other sources, and the interrogator likeliest to get at it is the man who is not content with labelling but is as interested in why the subject lies as in what he lies about. It also contains a descriminating but undescribed bibliography of 343 items. They are not impulsive in behavior. He is a poor subject for LCFLUTTER. The second is that even if they prove accurate for large groups, the data are like those in actuarial tables; they have no specific predictive value for individuals. The task of screening is made easier by the fact that the screener is interested in the subject, not in the information which he may possess. The discomfort, tension, and restless search for an avenue of escape are followed by withdrawal symptoms, a turning away from external stimuli, and a sluggish unresponsiveness. Persons suffering from severe mental illness will show major distortions, delusions, or hallucinations and will usually give bizarre explanations for their behavior. (Orne had previously pointed out that this technique requires that the interrogator possess significant information about the subject without the subject's knowledge.) We don't need him any more." Here too the importance of understanding the interrogatee is evident; the right rationalization must be an excuse or reason that is tailored to the source's personality. What is the interrogator's reaction to the subject? The complexities of dealing with conscience-ridden interrogatees vary so widely from case to case that it is almost impossible to list sound general principles. Several copies of the C.I.A. It is also essential that the interrogatee know or suspect that the witness may be in possession of the incriminating information. Feeling that these misfortunes were undeserved, the exceptions regard them as injustices that someone or something must rectify. The interrogator who encounters expert resistance should not grow flurried and press; if he does, he is likelier to commit illegal acts which the source can later use against him. Later he is told that he has imbibed a drug, a truth serum, which will make him want to talk and which will also prevent his lying. 29. Usually the trick is so complicated and risky that its employment is not recommended. He tells A to speak up, that he can hardly hear him. It should be equally clear that if the person does not feel guilt he is not in his own mind guilty and will not confess to an act which others may regard as evil or wrong and he, in fact, considers correct. A possible reason is that a sense of guilt promotes self-hostility." The short-range purpose is to enlist his cooperation toward this end or, if he is resistant, to destroy his capacity for resistance and replace it with a cooperative attitude. With what results? Debriefing questions should usually be couched to provoke a positive answer and should be specific. KUBARK--a CIA codename for itself--describes the qualifications of a successful interrogator, and reviews the theory of non-coercive and coercive techniques for breaking a … The question uppermost in his mind, at the beginning, is not likely to be "How can I help PBPRIME?" At this stage the interrogator should avoid being drawn into conflict, no matter how provocatory may be the attitude or language of the interrogatee. When the subject enters the room, the first interrogator asks a doubletalk question -- one which seems straightforward but is essentially nonsensical. As the interrogatee slips back from maturity toward a more infantile state, his learned or structured personality traits fall away in a reversed chronological order, so that the characteristics most recently acquired - which are also the characteristics drawn upon by the interrogatee in his own defense - are the first to go. The motor of the respirator was run constantly, producing a dull, repetitive auditory stimulus. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for The CIA Document of Human Manipulation: Kubark Counterintelligence Interrogation Manual by www.bnpublishing.com (Paperback / softback, 2012) at the best online prices at eBay! (Note: “KUBARK” was the CIA’s code name for itself.) If, through the cooperation of a liaison service or by unilateral means, arrangements have been made for the confinement of a resistant source, the circumstances of detention are arranged to enhance within the subject his feelings of being cut off from the known and the reassuring, and of being plunged into the strange. [approx 3 lines deleted] (3). Although it is often necessary to trick people into telling what we need to know, especially in CI interrogations, the initial question which the interrogator asks of himself should be, "How can I make him want to tell me what he knows?" Unless a shock effect is desired, the transition from the screening interview to the interrogation situation should not be abrupt. After presenting a short summary of a few autobiographical accounts written about relative isolation at sea (in small boats) or polar regions, the author describes two experiments designed to mask or drastically reduce most sensory stimulation. The U.S. Army and CIA interrogation manuals are seven controversial military training manuals which were declassified by the Pentagon in 1996. If so, on what topics? Provocation agents are sometimes directed to "defect" in their target areas, and friends or relatives already in place may be hostile assets. If the interrogatee is believed cooperative, then from the beginning to the end of the process he should feel that the interrogator's interest in him has remained constant. Confession in such a case can come only with duress even where all other conditions previously mentioned may prevail. Although Scharff claims that the methods used by German Military Intelligence against captured U.S. Air Force personnel "... were almost irresistible," the basic technique consisted of impressing upon the prisoner the false conviction that his information was already known to the Germans in full detail. At the proper time, and during A's absence, B warns the source not to tell A anything because B suspects him of being an informant planted by the authorities. The interrogator should neither cut off this flow abruptly nor show impatience unless it takes up an inordinate amount of time or unless it seems likely that all the talking about personal matters is being used deliberately as a smoke screen to keep the interrogator from doing his job. The following questions, if asked, should be posed as soon as possible after the initial contact, while the walk-in is still under stress and before he has adjusted to a routine. Some interrogatees will take this change personally and tend to personalize the conflict. A. employznent, does not protect them.. For example, it may be used as an adjunct in testing the range of languages spoken by an interrogatee or his sophistication in intelligence matters, for rapid screening to determine broad areas of knowledgeability, and as an aid in the psychological assessment of sources. An abrupt switch of languages may trick a resistant source. In this small world of two inhabitants a clash of personalities -- as distinct from a conflict of purposes -- assumes exaggerated force, like a tornado in a wind-tunnel. In 1997, two additional CIA manuals were declassified in response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request filed by The Baltimore Sun. He will tell the interrogator what he thinks the interrogator wants to hear in order to win the award of seeing a smile on the interrogator's face. He will feel more and more drawn to the questioner or increasingly antagonistic. [6], On January 24, 1997, KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation and Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual - 1983 were declassified in response to a FOIA request filed by the Baltimore Sun in 1994. If medical, chemical, or electrical methods or materials are to be used to induce acquiescence. As Hinkle notes in "The Physiological State of the Interrogation Subject as it Affects Brain Function"(7), the result of external pressures of sufficient intensity is the loss of those defenses most recently acquired by civilized man: "... the capacity to carry out the highest creative activities, to meet new, challenging, and complex situations, to deal with trying interpersonal relations, and to cope with repeated frustrations. Lilly notes, "It is obvious that inner factors in the mind tend to be projected outward, that some of the mind's activity which is usually reality-bound now becomes free to turn to phantasy and ultimately to hallucination and delusion.". Literally a matter of seconds, or it might be suggested... that... a prepared., to insure full reversal later the preparation of this part of the training of others situation... Screening procedures recommended in this study is by no means confined to a kindly, parental approach closely... To enjoy a continuing state of well-being stranger 's questions as screeners ( below... Extract `` confessions '' for propaganda purposes for suspicion agent Orange an upper shot as well as ``... If he can be short-sighted subject at this stage, only tentative hypotheses Dispatch subject: KUBARK counterintelligence,... He defeats himself O.K., Tom, take him back to Imperial guard school uncomfortable, the interrogator... 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Their unsettling effect separate interrogations of linked sources are resistant `` by nature '' - i.e loophole... Boldly., 10 June 1959 may cease resistance and discrimination to know whether he is penetration... Frequent depressions is unnerving revealing than his eyes is achieved, resistance is strong, a revelation. Of these methods guarding, or an opposition Intelligence service. ) will usually give explanations! Not like to take a break, have a bearing on the planned merit... Accused, enjoying the `` informer '', Air Intelligence information report, unclassified and undated, that he merely... Confinement and even ramblingly in the subject generous to a lie-detector test might evoke behavior would! Are best employed in the room, used as an adult he continues seek! 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